CEMR would like to thank all the partners and members, national associations and their member local and regional governments who answered the survey, as well as all the CEMR team members involved, who contributed to the production of this publication.


Special thanks to the scientific proof-readers of the analysis: Rossella Soldi and Stéphane Guérard. Special thanks as well to Prof. Dr. Habil Adam Bosiacki, PhD, Full Professor and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jarosław Kostrubiec, PhD, members of the university network OLA (Observatory on Local Autonomy), for their work on the polish country profile.


Publisher: Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CEMR)


Authors’ Team led by Nathalie Noupadja, CEMR Head of Research and Studies: Carol Thomas, Adviser – Governance and Institutional Relations, with the invaluable help of Tanja Traub, Damiano Ravera, and Elisa Decourcelle, CEMR Research Interns


Managing editors: Frédéric Vallier, CEMR Secretary General, Marlène Siméon, CEMR Director of Operations, and Durmish Guri, CEMR Director of External Resources and Knowledge Strategy


Editing and liaison with graphic design team: Pierre Vander Auwera, CEMR Communications Adviser, and Craig James Willy, CEMR Copy Editor


Copy editing: Penny Yim-Barbieri


Design: InExtremis - Brussels, January 2022


Translation into French: Domenica Pistoia


Information current as of September 2021


Disclaimer: The analyses, results and recommendations set out in this study are those of CEMR. They do not necessarily reflect the official position of any local or regional government, their associations or the multilateral institutions whose case studies are presented herein.


Copyright CEMR 2021


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